CJCP
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2024 Vol.  26 No.  6
Published: 2024-06-25

COLUMN ON DIAGNOSIS & TREATMENT IN MDT MODE
SERIES LECTURE—STANDARDIZED DIAGNOSIS AND TREATMENT OF SHORT STATURE IN CHILDREN
STANDARD·PROTOCOL·GUIDELINE
CLINICAL RESEARCH
EXPERIMENTAL RESEARCH
REVIEW
STANDARD·PROTOCOL·GUIDELINE
541 Nutritional Committee of Neonatology Branch of Chinese Medical Doctor Association; Preterm Committee of Neonatology Branch of Chinese Medical Doctor Association; Editorial Committee of Chinese Journal of Contemporary Pediatrics
Expert consensus on enteral nutrition management of preterm infants (2024) Hot!
Providing adequate and balanced nutrition for preterm infants, especially extremely/very preterm infants, is the material basis for promoting their normal growth and development and improving long-term prognosis. Enteral nutrition is the best way to feed preterm infants. Previous systematic reviews have shown that using evidence-based standardized feeding management strategies can effectively promote the establishment of full enteral feeding, reduce the duration of parenteral nutrition, improve the nutritional outcomes of preterm infants, and not increase the risk of necrotizing enterocolitis or death. Based on relevant research in China and overseas, the consensus working group has developed 20 recommendations in 5 aspects including the goal of enteral nutrition, transitioning to enteral nutrition, stable growth period enteral nutrition, supplementation of special nutrients, and monitoring of enteral nutrition for preterm infants, using the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation. The aim is to provide recommendations for healthcare professionals involved in the management of enteral nutrition for preterm infants, in order to improve the clinical outcomes of preterm infants.
2024 Vol. 26 (6): 541-552 [Abstract] ( 502 ) [HTML 1KB] [PDF 721KB] ( 416 )
SERIES LECTURE—STANDARDIZED DIAGNOSIS AND TREATMENT OF SHORT STATURE IN CHILDREN
553 GOU Peng, CHENG Xin-Ran
Early diagnosis and intervention for prepubertal short stature children
The prevalence of short stature among prepubertal children in China is relatively high. Early identification of the cause and timely intervention can bring greater benefits to children with short stature. This paper provides an overview of early diagnosis, intervention measures, and personalized medication dosage for prepubertal short stature children, aiming to provide references for clinical doctors.
2024 Vol. 26 (6): 553-558 [Abstract] ( 386 ) [HTML 1KB] [PDF 588KB] ( 217 )
CLINICAL RESEARCH
559 WANG Ya-Ni, LU Si-Qi, CHEN Hai, LI Yu-Qin, LU Hong-Yan, ZHU Hui, CHANG Ming.
Efficacy and safety of dust mite subcutaneous immunotherapy in children with allergic asthma: a prospective randomized controlled study
Objective To investigate the efficacy and safety of subcutaneous immunotherapy (SCIT) using dust mites in children with allergic asthma. Methods In a prospective randomized controlled study, 98 children with dust mite-induced allergic asthma were randomly divided into a control group (n=49) and an SCIT group (n=49). The control group received inhaled corticosteroid treatment, while the SCIT group additionally received a standardized three-year SCIT regimen. The two groups were compared based on peripheral blood eosinophil percentage, visual analogue score (VAS), total medication score, Asthma Control Test/Childhood Asthma Control Test scores, fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO), and lung function before treatment, and at 6 months, 1 year, 2 years, and 3 years after treatment. Adverse reactions were recorded post-injection to evaluate the safety of SCIT. Results Compared with pre-treatment levels, the SCIT group showed a significant reduction in the percentage of peripheral blood eosinophils, VAS, total medication score, and FeNO, while lung function significantly improved, and asthma control levels were better 3 years after treatment (P<0.05). Compared with the control group, the SCIT group showed more significant improvement in all evaluated indicators 3 years after treatment (P<0.05). A total of 2 744 injections were administered, resulting in 157 cases (5.72%) of local adverse reactions and 4 cases (0.15%) of systemic adverse reactions, with no severe systemic adverse events. Conclusions SCIT is an effective and safe treatment for allergic asthma in children.
2024 Vol. 26 (6): 559-566 [Abstract] ( 415 ) [HTML 1KB] [PDF 598KB] ( 265 )
567 LYV Zhao-Yi, WANG Liu-Ju, XU Mei-Xian, BAI Xin-Feng, CAO Li-Jing
Association between the structure of intestinal flora and inflammatory response in children with sepsis: a prospective cohort study
Objective To investigate the structural characteristics of intestinal flora in children with sepsis and its association with inflammatory response. Methods A prospective cohort study was conducted. The children with sepsis who were admitted from December 2021 to January 2023 were enrolled as the sepsis group, and the children with non-sepsis who were admitted during the same period were enrolled as the non-sepsis group. The two groups were compared in terms of the distribution characteristics of intestinal flora, peripheral white blood cell count (WBC), C reactive protein (CRP), and cytokines, and the correlation of the relative abundance of fecal flora with WBC, CRP, and cytokines was analyzed. Results At the genus level, compared with the non-sepsis group, the sepsis group had significantly lower relative abundance of Akkermansia, Ruminococcus, and Alistipes and significantly higher relative abundance of Enterococcus, Streptococcus, and Staphylococcus (P<0.05). At the phylum level, Proteobacteria was the dominant phylum (37.46%) in the group of children with a score of ≤70 from the Pediatric Critical Illness Score (PICS), and Firmicutes was the dominant phylum in the group of children with a score of 71-80 or 81-90 from the PICS (72.20% and 43.88%, respectively). At the genus level, among the 18 specimens, 5 had a relative abundance of >50% for a single flora. Compared with the non-sepsis group, the sepsis group had significant higher levels of WBC, CRP, interleukin-6 (IL-6), interleukin-10 (IL-10), and tumor necrosis factor-α (P<0.05). The Spearman's rank correlation analysis showed that at the genus level, the relative abundance of Ruminococcus, Alistipes, and Parasutterella in the sepsis group was negatively correlated with the levels of WBC, CRP, and IL-6 (P<0.05); the relative abundance of Enterococcus was positively correlated with the CRP level (P<0.01); the relative abundance of Streptococcus and Staphylococcus was positively correlated with the levels of CRP and IL-6 (P<0.05); the relative abundance of Streptococcus was positively correlated with WBC (P<0.05). Conclusions Intestinal flora disturbance is observed in children with sepsis, and its characteristics vary with the severity of the disease. The structural changes of intestinal flora are correlated with inflammatory response in children with sepsis.
2024 Vol. 26 (6): 567-574 [Abstract] ( 199 ) [HTML 1KB] [PDF 1572KB] ( 212 )
575 CHEN Yue, LU Yan-Bo, WU Jun-Hua, QIU Hai-Yan
Characteristics and clinical value of intestinal metabolites in children aged 4-6 years with obstructive sleep apnea-hypopnea syndrome
Objective To study the characteristics and clinical value of intestinal metabolites in children aged 4-6 years with obstructive sleep apnea-hypopnea syndrome (OSAHS). Methods A total of 31 children aged 4-6 years with OSAHS were prospectively enrolled as the test group, and 24 healthy children aged 4-6 years were included as the control group. Relevant clinical indicators were recorded. Fecal samples were collected, and non-targeted metabolomics analysis using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry was performed to detect all metabolites. Results A total of 206 metabolites were detected, mainly amino acids and their derivatives. There was a significant difference in the overall composition of intestinal metabolites between the test and control groups (P<0.05). Eighteen different metabolites were selected, among which six (N-acetylmethionine, L-methionine, L-lysine, DL-phenylalanine, L-tyrosine, and L-isoleucine) had receiver operating characteristic curve areas greater than 0.7 for diagnosing OSAHS. Among them, N-acetylmethionine had the largest area under the curve, which was 0.807, with a sensitivity of 70.83% and a specificity of 80.65%. Correlation analysis between different metabolites and clinical indicators showed that there were positive correlations between the degree of tonsil enlargement and enterolactone, between uric acid and phenylacetaldehyde, between blood glucose and acetylmethionine, and between cholesterol and 9-bromodiphenyl and procaine (P<0.05). There were negative correlations between the degree of tonsil enlargement and N-methyltyramine, aspartate aminotransferase and indolepropionic acid and L-isoleucine, between alanine aminotransferase and DL-phenylalanine, between indolepropionic acid and L-isoleucine, between uric acid and hydroxyquinoline, and between urea nitrogen and N,N-dicyclohexylurea (P<0.05). The metabolic functional pathways affected by differential metabolites mainly included riboflavin metabolism, arginine and proline metabolism, pantothenic acid and coenzyme A biosynthesis, cysteine and methionine metabolism, lysine degradation and glutathione metabolism. Conclusions Intestinal metabolites and metabolic functions are altered in children aged 4-6 years with OSAHS, primarily involving amino acid metabolism disorders. The screened differential intestinal metabolites have potential screening and diagnostic value as biomarkers for OSAHS.
2024 Vol. 26 (6): 575-583 [Abstract] ( 231 ) [HTML 1KB] [PDF 2097KB] ( 171 )
584 DENG Wen, LI Zhong-Yue, LIU Bo
Value of different endoscopic scoring methods in assessing disease activity in pediatric Crohn's disease
Objective To explore the value of different endoscopic scoring methods in assessing disease activity in pediatric Crohn's disease (CD). Methods A total of 70 children diagnosed with CD at the Children's Hospital of Chongqing Medical University from January 2018 to January 2023 were included. Clinical disease activity was assessed using the Pediatric Crohn's Disease Activity Index (PCDAI), while different endoscopic scores were assigned based on endoscopic findings. Spearman rank correlation analysis was used to evaluate the correlation between each endoscopic scoring method and PCDAI as well as laboratory indicators. Kappa test was used to assess the consistency between colonoscopy/capsule endoscopy scoring methods and PCDAI in determining CD activity. Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis was performed to assess the diagnostic efficacy of laboratory indicators in predicting endoscopic activity. Results The PCDAI score showed a moderate positive correlation with the scores of Crohn's Disease Endoscopic Index of Severity (CDEIS) (rs=0.696, P<0.01), Simple Endoscopic Score for Crohn's Disease (SES-CD) (rs=0.680, P<0.01), Lewis Score (rs=0.540, P<0.01), and Capsule Endoscopy-Crohn's Disease Index (CE-CD) (rs=0.502, P<0.01). The consistency between all endoscopic scoring methods and PCDAI in determining CD activity was poor (Kappa=0.069-0.226). Erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), C-reactive protein (CRP), hematocrit (HCT), and serum albumin (ALB) levels showed a moderate correlation with the PCDAI score and the scores of colonoscopy scoring methods (CDEIS and SES-CD) (|rs|=0.581-0.725, P<0.01), but a weak correlation with the scores of capsule scoring methods (P<0.05). ESR and CRP had higher area under the curve (AUC) values in predicting disease activity based on PCDAI, CDEIS, SES-CD, and Lewis Score compared to HCT and ALB (P<0.05). Conclusions CDEIS, SES-CD, Lewis Score, and CE-CD can be used to evaluate disease activity in pediatric CD, but they do not fully correspond with disease activity assessed by PCDAI. Elevated levels of ESR and CRP can predict clinical and endoscopic disease activity in children with CD.
2024 Vol. 26 (6): 584-591 [Abstract] ( 222 ) [HTML 1KB] [PDF 708KB] ( 168 )
592 WANG Wei, WANG Yi-Fan, XIAO Ya, ZHANG Hong-Ru, SUN Jun, SHI Wen-Hui, LI Jin-Bo
Value of single-phase gonadotropin-releasing hormone stimulation test in diagnosis of central precocious puberty in girls with different levels of body mass index
Objective To investigate the value of single-phase gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) stimulation test in the diagnosis of central precocious puberty (CPP) in girls with different levels of body mass index (BMI). Methods A retrospective analysis was performed for the data of 760 girls with breast development before 7.5 years of age who attended the Third Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University from January 2017 to August 2023. According to the results of GnRH stimulation test and clinical manifestations, they were divided into a CPP group (297 girls) and a non-CPP group (463 girls). According to the values of BMI, the girls were divided into a normal weight group (540 girls), an overweight group (116 girls), and an obese group (104 girls). The receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was used to investigate the value of single-phase GnRH stimulation test in the diagnosis of CPP in girls with different levels of BMI. Results Luteinizing hormone (LH)/follicle-stimulating hormone at 30 minutes after GnRH stimulation had an area under the curve (AUC) of 0.985 in the diagnosis of CPP, which was higher than the AUC at 0, 60, and 90 minutes (P<0.05). LH at 30 minutes had a similar diagnostic value to LH at 60 minutes (P>0.05). LH at 30 minutes was negatively correlated with BMI and BMI-Z value (P<0.05).The AUC for diagnosing CPP in normal weight, overweight, and obese girls at 30 minutes LH was 0.952, 0.965, and 0.954, respectively (P<0.05). Conclusions The 30-minute GnRH stimulation test has a good value in the diagnosis of CPP in girls with different levels of BMI and is expected to replace the traditional GnRH stimulation test, but the influence of BMI on LH level should be taken seriously.
2024 Vol. 26 (6): 592-598 [Abstract] ( 181 ) [HTML 1KB] [PDF 575KB] ( 141 )
599 YIN Jia-Bao, WANG Gan-Yu, DUAN Gui-Qin, NIE Wen-Hao, ZHAO Ming-Fang, JIN Ting-Ting
Neurodevelopment and cerebral blood flow in children aged 2-6 years with autism spectrum disorder
Objective To investigate the neurodevelopmental characteristics of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), analyze the correlation between neurodevelopmental indicators and cerebral blood flow (CBF), and explore the potential mechanisms of neurodevelopment in ASD children. Methods A retrospective study was conducted on 145 children aged 2-6 years with newly-diagnosed ASD. Scores from the Gesell Developmental Diagnosis Scale and the Autism Behavior Checklist (ABC) and CBF results were collected to compare gender differences in the development of children with ASD and analyze the correlation between CBF and neurodevelopmental indicators. Results Fine motor and personal-social development quotient in boys with ASD were lower than those in girls with ASD (P<0.05). Gross motor development quotient in ASD children was negatively correlated with CBF in the left frontal lobe (r=-0.200, P=0.016), right frontal lobe (r=-0.279, P=0.001), left parietal lobe (r=-0.208, P=0.012), and right parietal lobe (r=-0.187, P=0.025). The total ABC score was positively correlated with CBF in the left amygdala (r=0.295, P<0.001). Conclusions Early intervention training should pay attention to gender and developmental structural characteristics for precise intervention in ASD children. CBF has the potential to become a biological marker for assessing the severity of ASD.
2024 Vol. 26 (6): 599-604 [Abstract] ( 178 ) [HTML 1KB] [PDF 555KB] ( 145 )
605 LUO Ping, XIN Yan-Mei, GUO Qu-Lian, SHEN Xing
Expression of miR-142 and its relationship with Th17/Treg imbalance in children with autoimmune thyroid disease
Objective To investigate the expression of microRNA-142 (miR-142) in children with autoimmune thyroid disease (AITD) and its relationship with the imbalance of helper T cell 17 (Th17) and regulatory T cell (Treg). Methods A total of 89 children hospitalized for AITD from January 2019 to December 2022 were prospectively selected as the study subjects, including 48 children with Graves' disease (GD group) and 41 children with Hashimoto's thyroiditis (HT group). Additionally, 55 healthy children undergoing physical examinations during the same period were selected as the control group. The differences in serum miR-142, antithyroglobulin antibody (TGAb), antithyroperoxidase antibody (TPOAb), Th17/Treg, and interleukin-17 (IL-17) expression were compared among the groups. Results The expression of miR-142, TPOAb, TGAb, Th17, Th17/Treg, and IL-17 in the GD group and HT group was higher than that in the control group, while Treg was lower than that in the control group (P<0.05). Pearson correlation analysis revealed that in the GD group, miR-142 was positively correlated with TPOAb, TGAb, Th17, Th17/Treg, and IL-17 (r=0.711, 0.728, 0.785, 0.716, 0.709, respectively; P<0.001) and negatively correlated with Treg (r=-0.725, P<0.001); in the HT group, miR-142 was positively correlated with TPOAb and TGAb (r=0.752, 0.717, respectively; P<0.001). Conclusions miR-142 is highly expressed in children with AITD, and its expression may be related to the Th17/Treg imbalance in children with GD.
2024 Vol. 26 (6): 605-610 [Abstract] ( 190 ) [HTML 1KB] [PDF 1003KB] ( 193 )
611 FAN Yu-Wei, ZHANG Yi-Jia, WEN He-Mei, YAN Hong, SHEN Wei, DING Yue-Qin, LONG Yun-Feng, ZHANG Zhi-Gang, LI Gui-Fang, JIANG Hong, RAO Hong-Ping, QIU Jian-Wu, WEI Xian, ZHANG Ya-Yu, ZENG Ji-Bin, ZHAO Chang-Liang, XU Wei-Peng, WANG Fan, YUAN Li, YANG Xiu-Fang, LI Wei, LIN Ni-Yang, CHEN Qian, XIA Chang-Shun, ZHONG Xin-Qi, CUI Qi-Liang
Risk factors for bronchopulmonary dysplasia in twin preterm infants: a multicenter study
Objective To investigate the risk factors for bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) in twin preterm infants with a gestational age of <34 weeks, and to provide a basis for early identification of BPD in twin preterm infants in clinical practice. Methods A retrospective analysis was performed for the twin preterm infants with a gestational age of <34 weeks who were admitted to 22 hospitals nationwide from January 2018 to December 2020. According to their conditions, they were divided into group A (both twins had BPD), group B (only one twin had BPD), and group C (neither twin had BPD). The risk factors for BPD in twin preterm infants were analyzed. Further analysis was conducted on group B to investigate the postnatal risk factors for BPD within twins. Results A total of 904 pairs of twins with a gestational age of <34 weeks were included in this study. The multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that compared with group C, birth weight discordance of >25% between the twins was an independent risk factor for BPD in one of the twins (OR=3.370, 95%CI: 1.500-7.568, P<0.05), and high gestational age at birth was a protective factor against BPD (P<0.05). The conditional logistic regression analysis of group B showed that small-for-gestational-age (SGA) birth was an independent risk factor for BPD in individual twins (OR=5.017, 95%CI: 1.040-24.190, P<0.05). Conclusions The development of BPD in twin preterm infants is associated with gestational age, birth weight discordance between the twins, and SGA birth.
2024 Vol. 26 (6): 611-618 [Abstract] ( 181 ) [HTML 1KB] [PDF 604KB] ( 163 )
619 CHAI Feng-Yun, TONG Shi, HAN Mei, HU Xiao, ZHU Chun-Xue, GAO Xiang-Yu
Clinical study of prone positioning in invasive respiratory support for neonatal respiratory distress syndrome
Objective To assess the effectiveness and safety of prone positioning in the treatment of neonatal respiratory distress syndrome (NRDS) using invasive respiratory support. Methods A prospective study was conducted from June 2020 to September 2023 at Suining County People's Hospital, involving 77 preterm infants with gestational ages less than 35 weeks requiring invasive respiratory support for NRDS. The infants were randomly divided into a supine group (37 infants) and a prone group (40 infants). Infants in the prone group were ventilated in the prone position for 6 hours followed by 2 hours in the supine position, continuing in this cycle until weaning from the ventilator. The effectiveness and safety of the two approaches were compared. Results At 6 hours after enrollment, the prone group showed lower arterial blood carbon dioxide levels, inspired oxygen concentration, oxygenation index, rates of tracheal intubation bacterial colonization, and Neonatal Pain, Agitation and Sedation Scale scores compared to the supine group (P<0.05). There were no significant differences between the groups in terms of pH, arterial oxygen pressure, positive end-expiratory pressure, duration of mechanical ventilation, accidental extubation, ventilator-associated pneumonia, air leak syndrome, skin pressure sores, feeding intolerance, and grades II-IV intraventricular hemorrhage (P>0.05). Conclusions Compared to supine positioning, prone ventilation effectively improves oxygenation, increases comfort, and reduces tracheal intubation bacterial colonization in neonates requiring mechanical ventilation for NRDS, without significantly increasing adverse reactions.
2024 Vol. 26 (6): 619-624 [Abstract] ( 375 ) [HTML 1KB] [PDF 599KB] ( 236 )
625 QI Jiao, HE Xi-Yu
Investigation of influencing factors and reference ranges for thyroid function in hospitalized preterm infants at the age of 7 days
Objective To investigate the influencing factors and reference ranges for thyroid function in preterm infants at the age of 7 days, with the aim of avoiding unnecessary clinical reexamination and intervention. Methods A retrospective analysis was performed for the data of 685 preterm infants from January 2020 to January 2023. According to gestational age and birth weight, they were divided into a high-risk group (gestational age <34 weeks or birth weight<2 000 g; 228 infants) and a low-risk group (gestational age ≥34 weeks and birth weight ≥2 000 g;457 infants). The influencing factors for thyroid function were analyzed, and 95% reference range was calculated. Results Gestational age, birth weight, birth season, sex, and assisted reproduction were the influencing factors for thyroid function (P<0.05). For the preterm infants in the high-risk group, the reference ranges of free triiodothyronine (FT3), free thyroxine (FT4), total triiodothyronine (TT3), total thyroxine (TT4), and thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) were 2.79-5.40 pmol/L, 8.80-25.64 pmol/L, 0.80-2.15 nmol/L, 50.06-165.09 nmol/L, and 0.80-18.57 μIU/mL, respectively. For those in the low-risk group, the reference ranges of these indicators were 3.08-5.93 pmol/L, 11.17-26.24 pmol/L, 1.02-2.27 nmol/L, 62.90-168.95 nmol/L, and 0.69-13.70 μIU/mL, respectively. FT3, FT4, TT3, and TT4 were positively correlated with gestational age (P<0.05); FT3, FT4, TT3, and TT4 were positively correlated with birth weight (P<0.05); TSH was negatively correlated with birth weight (P<0.05). Conclusions Thyroid function in preterm infants at the age of 7 days is affected by the factors such as gestational age and birth weight, and the reference ranges of thyroid function in preterm infants at the age of 7 days should be established based on gestational age and birth weight.
2024 Vol. 26 (6): 625-630 [Abstract] ( 194 ) [HTML 1KB] [PDF 566KB] ( 151 )
EXPERIMENTAL RESEARCH
631 LIU Chen-Meng, GAO Xiao-Tian, ZHANG Hai-Mo, BI Hui-Ning, LIANG Chen, JIANG Jing-Ying, XIAO Pei-Lun, YU Xiao-He, WANG Xiao-Li
Melatonin alleviates autophagy in cortical neurons of neonatal rats with hypoxic- ischemic brain damage via the PI3K/AKT pathway
Objective To observe the effects of melatonin on autophagy in cortical neurons of neonatal rats with hypoxic-ischemic brain damage (HIBD) and to explore its mechanisms via the PI3K/AKT signaling pathway, aiming to provide a basis for the clinical application of melatonin. Methods Seven-day-old Sprague-Dawley neonatal rats were randomly divided into a sham operation group, an HIBD group, and a melatonin group (n=9 each). The neonatal rat HIBD model was established using the classic Rice-Vannucci method. Neuronal morphology in the neonatal rat cerebral cortex was observed with hematoxylin-eosin staining and Nissl staining. Autophagy-related protein levels of microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3 (LC3) and Beclin-1 were detected by immunofluorescence staining and Western blot analysis. Phosphorylated phosphoinositide 3-kinase (p-PI3K) and phosphorylated protein kinase B (p-AKT) protein expression levels were measured by immunohistochemistry and Western blot. The correlation between autophagy and the PI3K pathway in the melatonin group and the HIBD group was analyzed using Pearson correlation analysis. Results Twenty-four hours post-modeling, neurons in the sham operation group displayed normal size and orderly arrangement. In contrast, neurons in the HIBD group showed swelling and disorderly arrangement, while those in the melatonin group had relatively normal morphology and more orderly arrangement. Nissl bodies were normal in the sham operation group but distorted in the HIBD group; however, they remained relatively intact in the melatonin group. The average fluorescence intensity of LC3 and Beclin-1 was higher in the HIBD group compared to the sham operation group, but was reduced in the melatonin group compared to the HIBD group (P<0.05). The number of p-PI3K+ and p-AKT+ cells decreased in the HIBD group compared to the sham operation group but increased in the melatonin group compared to the HIBD group (P<0.05). LC3 and Beclin-1 protein expression levels were higher, and p-PI3K and p-AKT levels were lower in the HIBD group compared to the sham operation group (P<0.05); however, in the melatonin group, LC3 and Beclin-1 levels decreased, and p-PI3K and p-AKT increased compared to the HIBD group (P<0.05). The correlation analysis results showed that the difference of the mean fluorescence intensity of LC3 and Beclin-1 protein in the injured cerebral cortex between the melatonin and HIBD groups was negatively correlated with the difference of the number of p-PI3K+ and p-AKT+ cells between the two groups (P<0.05). Conclusions Melatonin can inhibit excessive autophagy in cortical neurons of neonatal rats with HIBD, thereby alleviating HIBD. This mechanism is associated with the PI3K/AKT pathway.
2024 Vol. 26 (6): 631-638 [Abstract] ( 199 ) [HTML 1KB] [PDF 3645KB] ( 176 )
639 LI Yue-Yun, WANG Xiao-Fang, FU Yan, WANG Yan-Rui
Effects of iris xanthin on airway inflammation, airway remodeling, and the HMGB1/TLR4/NF-κB pathway in asthmatic young mice
Objective To explore the effects of iris xanthin on airway inflammation, airway remodeling, and the high mobility group box 1 protein (HMGB1)/Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4)/nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) pathway in asthmatic young mice. Methods Sixty male BALB/c young mice were randomly assigned into six groups: a blank group, a model group, a dexamethasone group, and low, medium, and high dose groups of iris xanthin, with ten mice per group. Asthma models were induced through intraperitoneal injections of a sensitizing agent [ovalbumin (OVA) 20 μg + aluminum hydroxide gel 2 mg], followed by 4% OVA aerosol inhalation. Lung function was measured using a pulmonary function tester to determine lung volume (LV), resting ventilation per minute (VE), and airway reactivity (Penh value). Hematoxylin-eosin (HE) staining was employed to examine and analyze airway remodeling. The contents of interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid were quantified using ELISA. Real-time fluorescence quantitative polymerase chain reaction and Western blot analysis were used to assess the expression of HMGB1/TLR4/NF-κB pathway-related mRNA and proteins in lung tissues. Results Compared to the model group, the dexamethasone and iris xanthin-treated groups (low, medium, and high doses) exhibited significant increases in LV and VE (P<0.05), with incremental dose-dependent increases observed in the iris xanthin groups. Additionally, Penh values, IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α, and airway remodeling indicators, along with mRNA levels of HMGB1, TLR4, and NF-κB p65 and protein levels of HMGB1, TLR4, and p-NF-κB p65, were all reduced (P<0.05) in a dose-dependent manner. When compared to the dexamethasone group, the low and medium dose iris xanthin groups showed decreases in LV and VE (P<0.05), whereas Penh values, IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α, and airway remodeling indicators, along with mRNA levels of HMGB1, TLR4, NF-κB p65 and protein levels of HMGB1, TLR4, and p-NF-κB p65, were increased (P<0.05). No significant differences were noted in these indices between the high dose iris xanthin group and the dexamethasone group (P>0.05). Conclusions Iris xanthin can effectively alleviates airway inflammation and inhibits airway remodeling in asthmatic young mice, possibly through the suppression of the HMGB1/TLR4/NF-κB pathway.
2024 Vol. 26 (6): 639-645 [Abstract] ( 225 ) [HTML 1KB] [PDF 835KB] ( 214 )
REVIEW
646 DENG Zhi-Yue, XU Feng-Dan, HE Xiao-Guang, LI Ning
Research progress on the relationship between anemia and neonatal necrotizing enterocolitis
Neonatal necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is the most common inflammatory intestinal disease in preterm infants, with a high incidence and mortality rate. The etiology and mechanisms of NEC are not yet fully understood, and multiple factors contribute to its occurrence and development. Recent studies have found that anemia is a risk factor for NEC in neonates, but the specific pathogenic mechanism remains unclear. This article reviews recent research on the relationship between anemia and NEC, providing a reference for further understanding the impact of anemia on intestinal injury and its association with NEC.
2024 Vol. 26 (6): 646-651 [Abstract] ( 209 ) [HTML 1KB] [PDF 555KB] ( 169 )
652 WANG Ying, HE Qing-Nan
Research progress on monogenic inherited glomerular diseases with central nervous system symptoms
To date, approximately 500 monogenic inherited kidney diseases have been reported, with more than 50 genes associated with the pathogenesis of monogenic isolated or syndromic nephrotic syndrome. Most of these genes are expressed in podocytes of the glomerulus. Neurological symptoms are common extrarenal manifestations of syndromic nephrotic syndrome, and various studies have found connections between podocytes and neurons in terms of morphology and function. This review summarizes the genetic and clinical characteristics of monogenic inherited diseases with concomitant glomerular and central nervous system lesions, aiming to enhance clinicians' understanding of such diseases, recognize the importance of genetic diagnostic techniques for comorbidity screening, and reduce the rates of missed diagnosis and misdiagnosis.
2024 Vol. 26 (6): 652-658 [Abstract] ( 122 ) [HTML 1KB] [PDF 592KB] ( 132 )
COLUMN ON DIAGNOSIS & TREATMENT IN MDT MODE
659 LIU Hui-Juan, GUAN Rui-Lian, QIN Xin, WANG Huai-Zhen, ZHANG Gao-Long, LI Jian-Bin, MA Li, LI Le, LU Lian-Wei, SUN Yi, ZHANG Hua-Yan
The use of bronchial occlusion test in a preterm infant with severe bronchopulmonary dysplasia complicated by severe lobar emphysema
In infants with severe bronchopulmonary dysplasia (sBPD), severe pulmonary lobar emphysema may occur as a complication, contributing to significant impairment in ventilation. Clinical management of these infants is extremely challenging and some may require lobectomy to improve ventilation. However, prior to the lobectomy, it is very difficult to assess whether the remaining lung parenchyma would be able to sustain adequate ventilation postoperatively. In addition, preoperative planning and perioperative management are also quite challenging in these patients. This paper reports the utility of selective bronchial occlusion in assessing the safety and efficacy of lobectomy in a case of sBPD complicated by severe right upper lobar emphysema. Since infants with sBPD already have poor lung development and significant lung injury, lobectomy should be viewed as a non-traditional therapy and be carried out with extreme caution. Selective bronchial occlusion test can be an effective tool in assessing the risks and benefits of lobectomy in cases with sBPD and lobar emphysema. However, given the technical difficulty, successful application of this technique requires close collaboration of an experienced interdisciplinary team.
2024 Vol. 26 (6): 659-664 [Abstract] ( 182 ) [HTML 1KB] [PDF 933KB] ( 143 )
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