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2023 Vol.  25 No.  4
Published: 2023-04-19

READER, AUTHOR AND EDITOR
RARE DISEASE RESEARCH
TOPIC OF EPIDEMIC PREVENTION AND CONTROL
COLUMN ON DIAGNOSIS & TREATMENT IN MDT MODE
EXPERT LECTURE
CLINICAL RESEARCH
EXPERIMENTAL RESEARCH
REVIEW
TOPIC OF EPIDEMIC PREVENTION AND CONTROL
333 YAO Kai-Hu, GUO Meng-Yang, LAI Yun, DENG Jiang-Hong
Paying attention to the epidemic of group A Streptococcus infections in multiple European and American countries
At the end of 2022, the World Health Organization reported an increase in group A Streptococcus (GAS) infections, such as scarlet fever, in multiple countries. The outbreak primarily affected children under 10 years old, and the number of deaths was higher than anticipated, causing international concern. This paper reviews the current state of the GAS disease outbreak, its causes, and response measures. The authors aim to draw attention from clinical workers in China and increase their awareness and vigilance regarding this epidemic. Healthcare workers should be aware of the potential epidemiological changes in infectious diseases that may arise after the optimization of control measures for coronavirus disease 2019 to ensure children's health.
2023 Vol. 25 (4): 333-338 [Abstract] ( 1931 ) [HTML 1KB] [PDF 628KB] ( 808 )
339 SHI Ming-Rui, XU Hai-Dong, WANG Hong, HEI Ming-Yan
A cross-sectional study of enterovirus nucleic acid test with throat swabs for term late neonates during coronavirus disease 2019
Objective To investigate the positive rate of enterovirus (EV) nucleic acid in throat swabs of term late neonates hospitalized during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) epidemic and the clinical characteristics of the neonates. Methods A single-center cross-sectional study was performed on 611 term late infants who were hospitalized in the neonatal center from October 2020 to September 2021. Throat swabs were collected on admission for coxsackie A16 virus/EV71/EV universal nucleic acid testing. According to the results of EV nucleic acid test, the infants were divided into a positive EV nucleic acid group (8 infants) and a negative EV nucleic acid group (603 infants). Clinical features were compared between the two groups. Results Among the 611 neonates, 8 tested positive for EV nucleic acid, with a positive rate of 13.1‰, among whom 7 were admitted from May to October. There was a significant difference in the proportion of infants contacting family members with respiratory infection symptoms before disease onset between the positive and negative EV nucleic acid groups (75.0% vs 10.9%, P<0.001). There were no significant differences between the two groups in demographic data, clinical symptoms, and laboratory test results (P>0.05). Conclusions There is a certain proportion of term late infants testing positive for EV nucleic acid in throat swabs during the COVID-19 epidemic, but the proportion is low. The clinical manifestations and laboratory test results of these infants are non-specific. Transmission among family members might be an important cause of neonatal EV infection. Citation:Chinese Journal of Contemporary Pediatrics, 2023, 25(4): 339-343
2023 Vol. 25 (4): 339-343 [Abstract] ( 1818 ) [HTML 1KB] [PDF 569KB] ( 555 )
EXPERT LECTURE
344 ZHU Xiao-Fan
Optimized treatment of childhood B-lineage acute lymphoblastic leukemia
Childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) accounts for about 75% of childhood leukemia cases, and B-lineage acute lymphoblastic leukemia (B-ALL) accounts for more than 80% of childhood ALL cases. Over the past half century, new molecular biological targets discovered by new techniques have been used in precise stratification of disease prognosis, and there has been a gradual increase in the 5-year overall survival rate of childhood ALL. With the increasing attention to long-term quality of life, the treatment of childhood B-ALL has been constantly optimized from induction therapy to the intensity of maintenance therapy, including the treatment of extramedullary leukemia without radiotherapy, which has been tried with successful results. The realization of optimized treatment also benefits from the development of new techniques associated with immunology and molecular biology and the establishment of standardized clinical cohorts and corresponding biobanks. This article summarizes the relevant research on the implementation of precise stratification and the intensity reduction and optimization treatment of B-ALL in recent years, providing reference for clinicians. Citation:Chinese Journal of Contemporary Pediatrics, 2023, 25(4): 344-349
2023 Vol. 25 (4): 344-349 [Abstract] ( 1587 ) [HTML 1KB] [PDF 528KB] ( 654 )
CLINICAL RESEARCH
350 LIN Yu-Xin, FENG Xiao, ZHANG Yi-Dan, HONG Wan-Rong, ZHAO Hong-Ying
Clinical efficacy of mild therapeutic hypothermia with different rewarming time on neonatal hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy: a prospective randomized controlled study Hot!
Objective To investigate the clinical efficacy of mild therapeutic hypothermia (MTH) with different rewarming time on neonatal hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE). Methods A prospective study was performed on 101 neonates with HIE who were born and received MTH in Zhongshan Hospital, Xiamen University, from January 2018 to January 2022. These neonates were randomly divided into two groups: MTH1 group (n=50; rewarming for 10 hours at a rate of 0.25°C/h) and MTH2 group (n=51; rewarming for 25 hours at a rate of 0.10°C/h). The clinical features and the clinical efficacy were compared between the two groups. A binary logistic regression analysis was used to identify the factors influencing the occurrence of normal sleep-wake cycle (SWC) on amplitude-integrated electroencephalogram (aEEG) at 25 hours of rewarming. Results There were no significant differences between the MTH1 and MTH2 groups in gestational age, 5-minute Apgar score, and proportion of neonates with moderate/severe HIE (P>0.05). Compared with the MTH2 group, the MTH1 group tended to have a normal arterial blood pH value at the end of rewarming, a significantly shorter duration of oxygen dependence, a significantly higher proportion of neonates with normal SWC on aEEG at 10 and 25 hours of rewarming, and a significantly higher Neonatal Behavioral Neurological Assessment score on days 5, 12, and 28 after birth (P<0.05), while there was no significant difference in the incidence rate of rewarming-related seizures between the two groups (P>0.05). There were no significant differences between the two groups in the incidence rate of neurological disability at 6 months of age and the score of Bayley Scale of Infant Development at 3 and 6 months of age (P>0.05). The binary logistic regression analysis showed that prolonged rewarming time (25 hours) was not conducive to the occurrence of normal SWC (OR=3.423, 95%CI: 1.237-9.469, P=0.018). Conclusions Rewarming for 10 hours has a better short-term clinical efficacy than rewarming for 25 hours. Prolonging rewarming time has limited clinical benefits on neonates with moderate/severe HIE and is not conducive to the occurrence of normal SWC, and therefore, it is not recommended as a routine treatment method.
2023 Vol. 25 (4): 350-356 [Abstract] ( 2081 ) [HTML 1KB] [PDF 599KB] ( 1306 )
357 XIANG Hong, WU Ze-Ming, CHEN Hai, ZHU Hai-Jin, CHANG Ming
Levels of neutrophil extracellular traps in neonates with acute respiratory distress syndrome
Objective To study the changes in cell free-DNA (cf-DNA), a marker of neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs), in neonates with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), and to evaluate its relationship with the severity and early diagnosis of ARDS. Methods The neonates diagnosed with ARDS in the Affiliated Hospital of Jiangsu University from January 2021 to June 2022 were enrolled in the prospective study. The neonates were divided into mild, moderate, and severe ARDS groups based on the oxygen index (OI) (4≤OI<8, 8≤OI<16, and OI≥16, respectively). The control group was selected from jaundice neonates who were observed in the neonatal department of the hospital during the same period, and they had no pathological factors causing neonatal jaundice. Peripheral blood samples were collected on day 1, day 3, and day 7 after admission for the ARDS group, and on the day of admission for the control group. Serum cf-DNA levels were measured using a fluorescence enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Serum interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) levels were measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. A Pearson correlation analysis was used to evaluate the correlation of serum cf-DNA levels with serum IL-6 and TNF-α levels. Results A total of 50 neonates were enrolled in the ARDS group, including 15 neonates with mild ARDS, 25 with moderate ARDS, and 10 with severe ARDS. Twenty-five neonates were enrolled in the control group. Compared with the control group, the serum levels of cf-DNA, IL-6, and TNF-α in all ARDS groups were significantly increased (P<0.05). Compared with the mild ARDS group, the serum levels of cf-DNA, IL-6, and TNF-α in the moderate and severe ARDS groups were significantly increased (P<0.05), and the increase was more significant in the severe ARDS group (P<0.05). The serum levels of cf-DNA, IL-6, and TNF-α in all ARDS groups were significantly increased on day 3 after admission and significantly decreased on day 7 after admission compared with those on day 1 after admission (P<0.05). The Pearson correlation analysis showed that there was a positive correlation between serum cf-DNA levels and IL-6 levels as well as TNF-α levels in 50 neonates with ARDS (P<0.05). Conclusions There is an excessive expression of NETs in neonates with ARDS, and dynamic monitoring of serum cf-DNA levels has certain clinical value in evaluating the severity and early diagnosis of ARDS in neonates. Citation:Chinese Journal of Contemporary Pediatrics, 2023, 25(4): 357-361
2023 Vol. 25 (4): 357-361 [Abstract] ( 1557 ) [HTML 1KB] [PDF 616KB] ( 671 )
362 XU Ru-Zheng, SUN Bin, ZHAO Nai-Cheng
Association between early parenteral nutrition and the development of bronchopulmonary dysplasia in preterm infants
Objective To study the relationship between early parenteral nutrient intake and the development of bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) in preterm infants with gestational age less than 32 weeks who could not receive enteral nutrition within one week after birth. Methods A retrospective study was conducted on preterm infants born between October 2017 and August 2022 with gestational age less than 32 weeks who were admitted to the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit in Children's Hospital of Soochow University within 24 hours after birth and relied solely on parenteral nutrition within the first week of life. The study population included 79 infants with BPD and 73 infants without BPD. Clinical data during hospitalization were compared between the two groups. Results The proportions of infants with weight loss of more than 10% after birth, extrauterine growth retardation, and parenteral nutrition-associated cholestasis in the BPD group were higher than in the non-BPD group (P<0.05). The time to regain birth weight, time to achieve full enteral feeding, and corrected gestational age at discharge were longer in the BPD group than in the non-BPD group. The Z-scores of physical growth at corrected gestational age of 36 weeks were lower in the BPD group than in the non-BPD group (P<0.05). The BPD group had a higher fluid intake and a lower calories intake in the first week than the non-BPD group (P<0.05). The starting dose and total amount of amino acids, glucose, and lipids in the first week were lower in the BPD group than in the non-BPD group (P<0.05). The BPD group had a higher glucose-to-lipid ratio on the third day and higher energy-to-nitrogen and glucose-to-lipid ratios on the seventh day after birth than the non-BPD group (P<0.05). Conclusions Preterm infants with BPD had lower intake of amino acids and lipids and a lower proportion of calories provided by amino acids and lipids in the first week of life, which suggests an association between early parenteral nutrition intake and the development of BPD. Citation:Chinese Journal of Contemporary Pediatrics, 2023, 25(4): 362-367
2023 Vol. 25 (4): 362-367 [Abstract] ( 1627 ) [HTML 1KB] [PDF 538KB] ( 746 )
368 PAN Wei-Wei, LIAO Jiao-Jiao, TONG Xiao-Mei
Follow-up and prognostic study of infants with positional plagiocephaly
Objective To study the effects of infantile positional plagiocephaly on the growth and neural development. Methods A retrospective study was conducted on the medical data of 467 children who underwent craniographic examination and were followed up to 3 years of age in Peking University Third Hospital from June 2018 to May 2022. They were divided into four groups: mild positional plagiocephaly (n=108), moderate positional plagiocephaly (n=49), severe positional plagiocephaly (n=12), and normal cranial shape (n=298). The general information of the four groups and the weight, length, head circumference, visual acuity screening results, hearing test results, and the scores of Pediatric Neuropsychological Developmental Scales/Gesell Developmental Schedules of the four groups from 6 to 36 months old were compared. Results The rates of adverse perinatal factors, congenital muscular torticollis, and supine fixed sleeping posture in the mild, moderate, and severe positional plagiocephaly groups were higher than the normal cranial group (P<0.05). There was no significant difference in weight, length, and head circumference among the four groups at 6, 12, 24 and 36 months of age (P>0.05). The incidence rate of abnormal vision in the severe positional plagiocephaly group was higher than that in the mild positional plagiocephaly, moderate positional plagiocephaly and normal cranial shape groups at 24 and 36 months of age (P<0.05). The scores of the Pediatric Neuropsychological Developmental Scales at 12 and 24 months of age and the scores of the Gesell Developmental Schedules at 36 months of age in the severe positional plagiocephaly group were lower than those in the mild positional plagiocephaly, moderate positional plagiocephaly and normal cranial shape groups, but the difference was not statistically significant (P>0.05). Conclusions Adverse perinatal factors, congenital muscular torticollis, and supine fixed sleeping position may be associated with infantile positional plagiocephaly. Mild or moderate positional plagiocephaly has no significant impact on the growth and neural development of children. Severe positional plagiocephaly have adverse effects on the visual acuity. However, it is not considered that severe positional plagiocephaly can affect the neurological development. Citation:Chinese Journal of Contemporary Pediatrics, 2023, 25(4): 368-373
2023 Vol. 25 (4): 368-373 [Abstract] ( 1662 ) [HTML 1KB] [PDF 677KB] ( 814 )
374 LI Xiao-Lan, LIU Li-Peng, LIU Fang, GUO Ye, CHEN Xiao-Juan, ZHU Xiao-Fan, YANG Wen-Yu
Safety and short-term effectiveness of blinatumomab in the treatment of childhood relapsed/refractory acute lymphoblastic leukemia
Objective To study the safety and short-term effectiveness of blinatumomab in the treatment of childhood relapsed/refractory acute lymphoblastic leukemia (R/R-ALL). Methods Six children with R/R-ALL who received blinatumomab treatment from August 2021 to August 2022 were included as subjects, and a retrospective analysis was performed for their clinical data. Results Among the six children, there were three boys and three girls, with a median age of 10.5 (5.0-13.0) years at the time of inclusion. Of all six children, one had refractory ALL and did not achieve remission after several times of chemotherapy, and 5 relapsed for the first time, with a median time of 30 (9-60) months from diagnosis to relapse. Minimal residual disease (MRD) before treatment was 15.50% (0.08%-78.30%). Three children achieved complete remission after treatment, among whom two had negative conversion of MRD. Five children had cytokine release syndrome (CRS), among whom 3 had grade 1 CRS and 2 had grade 2 CRS. Four children were bridged to allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, with a median interval of 50 (40-70) days from blinatumomab treatment to transplantation. The six children were followed up for a median time of 170 days, and the results showed an overall survival rate of 41.7% (95%CI: 5.6%-76.7%) and a median survival time of 126 (95%CI: 53-199) days. Conclusions Blinatumomab has good short-term safety and effectiveness in the treatment of childhood R/R-ALL, and its long-term effectiveness needs to be confirmed by studies with a larger sample size. Citation:Chinese Journal of Contemporary Pediatrics, 2023, 25(4): 374-380
2023 Vol. 25 (4): 374-380 [Abstract] ( 2391 ) [HTML 1KB] [PDF 873KB] ( 860 )
381 PENG Shuai, ZHANG Guang-Li, HONG Jing-Xian, DING Hao, WANG Chong-Jie, LUO Jian, LUO Zheng-Xiu
Clinical and bronchoscopy features of tracheobronchial tuberculosis in children
Objective To study the clinical and bronchoscopic characteristics of tracheobronchial tuberculosis (TBTB) in children and to identify factors influencing residual airway obstruction or stenosis. Methods The clinical data of children with TBTB were retrospectively collected. The children were divided into two groups based on the last bronchoscopic result within one year of follow-up: a group with residual airway obstruction or stenosis (n=34) and a group without residual airway obstruction or stenosis (n=58). A multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to identify the factors influencing residual airway obstruction or stenosis in children with TBTB. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were used to analyze the predictive value of the factors influencing residual airway obstruction or stenosis in children with TBTB. Results A total of 92 children with TBTB were included, and the main symptoms were cough (90%) and fever (68%). In children under 1 year old, the incidence rates of dyspnea and wheezing were significantly higher than in other age groups (P<0.008). Chest CT findings included mediastinal or hilar lymph node enlargement (90%) and tracheobronchial stenosis or obstruction (61%). The lymphatic fistula type was the main type of TBTB observed bronchoscopically (77%). All children received interventional treatment, and the effective rate was 84%. During one year of follow-up, 34 children had residual airway obstruction or stenosis. The TBTB diagnostic time and the initiation of interventional treatment were significantly delayed in the group with residual airway obstruction or stenosis compared with the group without residual airway obstruction or stenosis (P<0.05). The multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that the TBTB diagnostic time was closely related to residual airway obstruction or stenosis in children (P<0.05). ROC curve analysis showed that at the cut-off value of 92 days of TBTB diagnostic time, the area under the curve for predicting residual airway obstruction or stenosis in children with TBTB was 0.707, with a sensitivity of 58.8% and a specificity of 75.9%. Conclusions The clinical manifestations of TBTB are nonspecific, and symptoms are more severe in children under 1 year old. TBTB should be suspected in children with tuberculosis and chest imaging indicating airway involvement. Delayed diagnosis of TBTB is associated with the development of residual airway obstruction or stenosis. Citation:Chinese Journal of Contemporary Pediatrics, 2023, 25(4): 381-387
2023 Vol. 25 (4): 381-387 [Abstract] ( 1810 ) [HTML 1KB] [PDF 762KB] ( 920 )
388 LI Mei-Kun, PANG Shu-Chao, YAN Bo
Association of ventricular septal defect with rare variations of the HAND2 gene
Objective To study the association of ventricular septal defect (VSD) with rare variations in the promoter region of HAND2 gene, as well as related molecular mechanisms. Methods Blood samples were collected from 349 children with VSD and 345 healthy controls. The target fragments were amplified by polymerase chain reaction and sequenced to identify the rare variation sites in the promoter region of the HAND2 gene. Dual-luciferase reporter assay was used to perform a functional analysis of the variation sites. Electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA) was used to investigate related molecular mechanisms. TRANSFAC and JASPAR databases were used to predict transcription factors. Results Sequencing revealed that three variation sites (g.173530852A>G, g.173531173A>G, and g.173531213C>G) were only observed in the promoter region of the HAND2 gene in 10 children with VSD, among whom 4 children had only one variation site. The dual-luciferase reporter assay revealed that g.173531213C>G reduced the transcriptional activity of the HAND2 gene promoter. EMSA and transcription factor prediction revealed that g.173531213C>G created a binding site for transcription factor. Conclusions The rare variation, g.173531213C>G, in the promoter region of the HAND2 gene participates in the development and progression of VSD possibly by affecting the binding of transcription factors. Citation:Chinese Journal of Contemporary Pediatrics, 2023, 25(4): 388-393
2023 Vol. 25 (4): 388-393 [Abstract] ( 1384 ) [HTML 1KB] [PDF 883KB] ( 587 )
394 HE Hai-Yan, YU Min, NING Man, CUI Xiao-Chen, JIA Li-Yuan, LI Ruo-Yu, WAN Yu-Hui
The role of mother-child relationship in the association between maternal parenting stress and emotional and behavioral problems in preschool children
Objective To study the moderating effect of mother-child relationship in the association between maternal parenting stress and emotional and behavioral problems in preschool children, and to provide reference for the prevention and control of emotional and behavioral problems in preschool children. Methods Using a stratified cluster sampling method, 2 049 preschool children were surveyed from November to December 2021, who sampled from 12 kindergartens in Wuhu City, Anhui Province. The emotional and behavioral problems of preschool children were assessed with the Strength and Difficulties Questionnaire. Pearson correlation analysis was used to evaluate the relationship of maternal parenting stress and mother-child relationship with children's emotional and behavioral problems. The PROCESS Macro was used to analyze the moderating effect of conflicted and dependent mother-child relationships in the association between maternal parenting stress and emotional and behavioral problems in these preschool children. Results Among these preschool children, maternal parenting stress was positively correlated with the scores of emotional symptoms, conduct problems, hyperactivity, and peer problems subscales and total difficulty scores (P<0.001); intimate mother-child relationships were negatively correlated with the scores of conduct problems, hyperactivity, and peer problems subscales and total difficulty scores (P<0.001); conflicted and dependent mother-child relationships were positively correlated with the scores of emotional symptoms, conduct problems, hyperactivity, and peer problems subscales and total difficulty scores (P<0.001). After controlling for relevant confounding factors, conflicted mother-child relationship (β=0.05, P=0.001) and dependent mother-child relationship (β=0.04, P=0.012) were found to have a moderating effect on the association between maternal parenting stress and total difficulty scores in these preschool children. Conclusions Negative mother-child relationships play a moderating role in the association between maternal parenting stress and emotional and behavioral problems in preschool children. Prevention of emotional and behavioral problems in preschool children should focus on reducing maternal parenting stress and improving negative mother-child relationships. Citation:Chinese Journal of Contemporary Pediatrics, 2023, 25(4): 394-400
2023 Vol. 25 (4): 394-400 [Abstract] ( 1541 ) [HTML 1KB] [PDF 574KB] ( 572 )
CLINICAL RESEARCH
350 LIN Yu-Xin, FENG Xiao, ZHANG Yi-Dan, HONG Wan-Rong, ZHAO Hong-Ying
Clinical efficacy of mild therapeutic hypothermia with different rewarming time on neonatal hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy: a prospective randomized controlled study Hot!
Objective To investigate the clinical efficacy of mild therapeutic hypothermia (MTH) with different rewarming time on neonatal hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE). Methods A prospective study was performed on 101 neonates with HIE who were born and received MTH in Zhongshan Hospital, Xiamen University, from January 2018 to January 2022. These neonates were randomly divided into two groups: MTH1 group (n=50; rewarming for 10 hours at a rate of 0.25°C/h) and MTH2 group (n=51; rewarming for 25 hours at a rate of 0.10°C/h). The clinical features and the clinical efficacy were compared between the two groups. A binary logistic regression analysis was used to identify the factors influencing the occurrence of normal sleep-wake cycle (SWC) on amplitude-integrated electroencephalogram (aEEG) at 25 hours of rewarming. Results There were no significant differences between the MTH1 and MTH2 groups in gestational age, 5-minute Apgar score, and proportion of neonates with moderate/severe HIE (P>0.05). Compared with the MTH2 group, the MTH1 group tended to have a normal arterial blood pH value at the end of rewarming, a significantly shorter duration of oxygen dependence, a significantly higher proportion of neonates with normal SWC on aEEG at 10 and 25 hours of rewarming, and a significantly higher Neonatal Behavioral Neurological Assessment score on days 5, 12, and 28 after birth (P<0.05), while there was no significant difference in the incidence rate of rewarming-related seizures between the two groups (P>0.05). There were no significant differences between the two groups in the incidence rate of neurological disability at 6 months of age and the score of Bayley Scale of Infant Development at 3 and 6 months of age (P>0.05). The binary logistic regression analysis showed that prolonged rewarming time (25 hours) was not conducive to the occurrence of normal SWC (OR=3.423, 95%CI: 1.237-9.469, P=0.018). Conclusions Rewarming for 10 hours has a better short-term clinical efficacy than rewarming for 25 hours. Prolonging rewarming time has limited clinical benefits on neonates with moderate/severe HIE and is not conducive to the occurrence of normal SWC, and therefore, it is not recommended as a routine treatment method.
2023 Vol. 25 (4): 350-356 [Abstract] ( 772 ) [HTML 1KB] [PDF 0KB] ( 294 )
RARE DISEASE RESEARCH
401 LI Ke-Yao, TANG Jian-Ping, JIANG Yan-Ling, YUE Shu-Zhen, ZHOU Bin, WEN Rong, HOU Ze-Tao, WEI Zhu
Holocarboxylase synthetase deficiency induced by HLCS gene mutations: a rare disease study
A boy, aged 16 months, attended the hospital due to head and facial erythema for 15 months and vulva erythema for 10 months with aggravation for 5 days. The boy developed perioral and periocular erythema in the neonatal period and had erythema and papules with desquamation and erosion in the neck, armpit, and trigone of vulva in infancy. Blood gas analysis showed metabolic acidosis; the analysis of amino acid and acylcarnitine profiles for inherited metabolic diseases and the analysis of organic acid in urine suggested multiple carboxylase deficiency; genetic testing showed a homozygous mutation of c.1522C>T(p.R508W) in the HLCS gene. Finally the boy was diagnosed with holocarboxylase synthetase deficiency and achieved a good clinical outcome after oral biotin treatment. This article analyzes the clinical data of a child with holocarboxylase synthetase deficiency and summarizes the etiology, diagnosis, and treatment of this child, so as to provide ideas for clinicians to diagnose this rare disease.
2023 Vol. 25 (4): 401-406 [Abstract] ( 1546 ) [HTML 1KB] [PDF 1051KB] ( 724 )
EXPERIMENTAL RESEARCH
407 GUO Xin, LI Ming-Xia, BAYER Caicike, YANG Yan-Qing, WANG Le
Effect of platelet-derived growth factor-BB on pulmonary vascular remodeling in neonatal rats with hypoxic pulmonary hypertension and its mechanism
Objective To study the effect of platelet-derived growth factor-BB (PDGF-BB) on pulmonary vascular remodeling in neonatal rats with hypoxic pulmonary hypertension (HPH). Methods A total of 128 neonatal rats were randomly divided into four groups: PDGF-BB+HPH, HPH, PDGF-BB+normal oxygen, and normal oxygen (n=32 each). The rats in the PDGF-BB+HPH and PDGF-BB+normal oxygen groups were given an injection of 13 μL 6×1010 PFU/mL adenovirus with PDGF-BB gene via the caudal vein. After 24 hours of adenovirus transfection, the rats in the HPH and PDGF-BB+HPH groups were used to establish a neonatal rat model of HPH. Right ventricular systolic pressure (RVSP) was measured on days 3, 7, 14, and 21 of hypoxia. Hematoxylin-eosin staining was used to observe pulmonary vascular morphological changes under an optical microscope, and vascular remodeling parameters (MA% and MT%) were also measured. Immunohistochemistry was used to measure the expression levels of PDGF-BB and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) in lung tissue. Results The rats in the PDGF-BB+HPH and HPH groups had a significantly higher RVSP than those of the same age in the normal oxygen group at each time point (P<0.05). The rats in the PDGF-BB+HPH group showed vascular remodeling on day 3 of hypoxia, while those in the HPH showed vascular remodeling on day 7 of hypoxia. On day 3 of hypoxia, the PDGF-BB+HPH group had significantly higher MA% and MT% than the HPH, PDGF-BB+normal oxygen, and normal oxygen groups (P<0.05). On days 7, 14, and 21 of hypoxia, the PDGF-BB+HPH and HPH groups had significantly higher MA% and MT% than the PDGF-BB+normal oxygen and normal oxygen groups (P<0.05). The PDGF-BB+HPH and HPH groups had significantly higher expression levels of PDGF-BB and PCNA than the normal oxygen group at all time points (P<0.05). On days 3, 7, and 14 of hypoxia, the PDGF-BB+HPH group had significantly higher expression levels of PDGF-BB and PCNA than the HPH group (P<0.05), while the PDGF-BB+normal oxygen group had significantly higher expression levels of PDGF-BB and PCNA than the normal oxygen group (P<0.05). Conclusions Exogenous administration of PDGF-BB in neonatal rats with HPH may upregulate the expression of PCNA, promote pulmonary vascular remodeling, and increase pulmonary artery pressure. Citation:Chinese Journal of Contemporary Pediatrics, 2023, 25(4): 407-414
2023 Vol. 25 (4): 407-414 [Abstract] ( 1818 ) [HTML 1KB] [PDF 2193KB] ( 812 )
REVIEW
415 SHAO Shu-Ming, ZHANG Yi-Min
Research progress on long-term developmental outcomes of offspring of pregnant women with systemic lupus erythematosus
Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is an autoimmune connective tissue disease that affects multiple organs and systems. It is more common in women of childbearing age. Compared with the general population, pregnant women with SLE are at a significantly increased risk of adverse perinatal outcomes such as preterm birth and intrauterine growth restriction. In addition, the offspring of SLE patients may also be adversely affected by in utero exposure to maternal autoantibodies, cytokines, and drugs. This article summarizes the long-term developmental outcomes of offspring of pregnant women with SLE in terms of the blood system, circulatory system, nervous system, and immune system. Citation:Chinese Journal of Contemporary Pediatrics, 2023, 25(4): 415-419
2023 Vol. 25 (4): 415-419 [Abstract] ( 1688 ) [HTML 1KB] [PDF 475KB] ( 653 )
420 ZHANG Wen-Chao, MAO Ying-Ying
Research progress of nervous system damage in Pompe disease
Pompe disease, also known as glycogen storage disease type Ⅱ, is a rare autosomal recessive disease. With the application of enzyme replacement therapy, more and more patients with Pompe disease can survive to adulthood, and nervous system-related clinical manifestations gradually emerge. Nervous system involvement seriously affects the quality of life of patients with Pompe disease, and a systematic understanding of the clinical manifestations, imaging features and pathological changes of nervous system injury in Pompe disease is of great significance for the early identification and intervention of Pompe disease. This article reviews the research progress of neurological damage in Pompe disease. Citation:Chinese Journal of Contemporary Pediatrics, 2023, 25(4): 420-424
2023 Vol. 25 (4): 420-424 [Abstract] ( 1498 ) [HTML 1KB] [PDF 515KB] ( 599 )
425 ZHENG Kui, LIU Lu
Recent research on childhood hypertrophic cardiomyopathy caused by MYH7 gene mutations
Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) is the most common monogenic inherited myocardial disease in children, and mutations in sarcomere genes (such as MYH7 and MYBPC3) are the most common genetic etiology of HCM, among which mutations in the MYH7 gene are the most common and account for 30%-50%. MYH7 gene mutations have the characteristics of being affected by environmental factors, coexisting with multiple genetic variations, and age-dependent penetrance, which leads to different or overlapping clinical phenotypes in children, including various cardiomyopathies and skeletal myopathies. At present, the pathogenesis, course, and prognosis of HCM caused by MYH7 gene mutations in children remain unclear. This article summarizes the possible pathogenesis, clinical phenotype, and treatment of HCM caused by MYH7 gene mutations, in order to facilitate the accurate prognostic evaluation and individualized management and treatment of the children with this disorder. Citation:Chinese Journal of Contemporary Pediatrics, 2023, 25(4): 425-430
2023 Vol. 25 (4): 425-430 [Abstract] ( 1699 ) [HTML 1KB] [PDF 540KB] ( 794 )
COLUMN ON DIAGNOSIS & TREATMENT IN MDT MODE
431 GAO Rui-Wei, BA Yin, ZHANG Rong, CAO Yun, YANG Lin, WU Bing-Bing, ZHOU Wen-Hao, ZHOU Jian-Guo
Neonate-onset ornithine transcarbamylase deficiency
The male neonate in this case study was admitted to the hospital at 15 hours of age due to respiratory distress for 15 hours and poor response for 3 hours after resuscitation from asphyxia. The neonate was highly unresponsive, with central respiratory failure and seizures. Serum ammonia was elevated (>1 000 μmol/L). Blood tandem mass spectrometry revealed a significant decrease in citrulline. Rapid familial whole genome sequencing revealed OTC gene mutations inherited from the mother. Continuous hemodialysis filtration and other treatments were given. Neurological assessment was performed by cranial magnetic resonance imaging and electroencephalogram. The neonate was diagnosed with ornithine transcarbamylase deficiency combined with brain injury. He died at 6 days of age after withdrawing care. This article focuses on the differential diagnosis of neonatal hyperammonemia and introduces the multidisciplinary management of inborn error of metabolism.
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