Abstract：Objective To study the features of intestinal flora in children with food protein-induced proctocolitis (FPIP) by high-throughput sequencing. Methods A total of 31 children, aged <6 months, who experienced FPIP after exclusive breastfeeding and attended the outpatient service of the Third Affiliated Hospital of Zunyi Medical University from October 2018 to February 2021 were enrolled as the FPIP group. Thirty-one healthy infants were enrolled as the control group. Fecal samples were collected to extract DNA for PCR amplification. High-throughput sequencing was used to perform a bioinformatics analysis of 16S rDNA V3-V4 fragments in fecal samples. Results The diversity analysis of intestinal flora showed that compared with the control group, the FPIP group had a lower Shannon index for diversity (P>0.05) and a significantly higher Chao index for abundance (P<0.01). At the phylum level, the intestinal flora in both groups were composed of Firmicutes, Actinobacteria, Proteobacteria, and Bacteroidetes. Compared with the control group, the FPIP group had a significant reduction in the composition ratio of Actinobacteria (P<0.001) and a significant increase in the composition ratio of Proteobacteria (P<0.05). At the genus level, the intestinal flora in the FPIP group were mainly composed of Escherichia, Clostridium, Enterococcus, Klebsiella, and Bifidobacterium, and the intestinal flora in the control group were mainly composed of Bifidobacterium and Streptococcus. Compared with the control group, the FPIP group had a significant reduction in the composition ratio of Bifidobacterium and Ruminococcus (P<0.05) and significant increases in the composition ratios of Clostridium and Shigella (P<0.05). Conclusions Compared with the control group, the FPIP group has a reduction in the diversity of intestinal flora and an increase in their abundance, and there are certain differences in several bacterial genera. These results suggest that changes in the composition of intestinal flora at genus level may play an important role in the development and progression of FPIP. Citation:Chinese Journal of Contemporary Pediatrics, 2022, 24(5): 536-542
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